Multi-Wafer Rotating MEMS Machines: Turbines, Generators, and Engines (MEMS Reference Shelf)


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When the comb drive arrays are electrostatically actuated, they make an angular displacement that is sufficient for rotating and ratcheting the outer ring gear at least one tooth. The micro engine may be Sandia's micro engine. In this embodiment, the micro engine provides reciprocating motion When electrostatically actuated, one set is used to drive the ram in the forward direction and the other set is used to drive the ram in the reverse direction. Advantages of using actuators and instead of a micro engine or TRA may be twofold.

First, the single and double thermal actuator system and may have a chip footprint that is less than ten percent that of the micro engine For example, the double thermal actuator system may have a footprint of one 1 millimeter by microns. Second, the double thermal actuator system provides one hundred to one thousand times more force than that of the micro engine For example, the double thermal actuator system may provide millinewtons of force. Advantages of using the micro engine instead of actuators and may include lower power requirements and far higher drive frequency rates as a thermal actuator is limited to about one thousand Hz.

The micro transmission 16 transmits power between components such as from a thermal actuator or other micro actuator 14 to a horizontal rotating shaft , other drive shaft or device. The micro transmission 16 may convert or otherwise transfer one type of motion into a different type of motion. The micro transmission may include an input shaft coupled to the micro actuator 14 and an output shaft coupled to the micro shaft The input and output shafts may include gears, slides, pins and the like.

One or more power conversion elements convert a first type of movement, or motion, from the input shaft to a second different type of movement, or motion for the output shaft. Other suitable types of micro transmissions 16 may be used. For example, the micro transmission illustrated in connection with the micro blender may be used for any suitable application. The micro transmission may be powered by double thermal actuators to drive a micro shaft and a micro tool The micro transmission may be used for other suitable applications such as converting reciprocating motion in any plane, including out-of-plane, into rotational motion in that plane.

Cranking mechanism turns micro shaft ninety 90 degrees during a pulling motion of powered actuation. The cranking mechanism turns micro shaft ninety 90 degrees during a pushing motion of powered actuation. Cranking mechanism comprises an upper wedge , a lower wedge , a illustrated as vertically oriented cranking column attached to micro shaft , and a shuttle guide Cranking mechanism comprises an upper wedge , a lower wedge , a illustrated as horizontally oriented cranking column attached to micro shaft , and a shuttle guide The cranking columns and for part of the power conversion elements which the shaft includes the output shaft of the transmission In other embodiments, the output shaft may be distinct or non-internal with shaft In operation, the micro transmission rotates micro shaft and drives micro tool During a pulling motion by thermal actuator a , shown in FIG.

At the end of the pulling cycle, the cranking column is turned ninety 90 degrees from a vertical orientation into a horizontal orientation and the cranking column is turned ninety 90 degrees from a horizontal orientation into a vertical orientation. During a pushing motion by thermal actuator b , the cranking mechanism slides between shuttle guides and so that wedges and engage cranking column and turn the following items ninety 90 degrees: the cranking column , the micro shaft , and the cranking column At the end of the pushing cycle, the cranking column is turned ninety 90 degrees from a vertical orientation into a horizontal orientation and the cranking column is turned ninety 90 degrees from a horizontal orientation into a vertical orientation.

The one cycle reciprocating action of the pulling and pushing motions on transmission provides one hundred eighty degrees rotation of the micro shaft Two such cycles provide a complete three hundred sixty degrees rotation of shaft The micro transmission may be powered by TRA to drive a micro shaft and a micro tool Micro transmission may be otherwise used for converting rotational motion to a different rotational motion, rotational motion an intermediation or final reciprocating motion, and other suitable applications.

For example, micro transmission may convert rotation in any plane, including in-plane, into rotational motion in any other plane, including out-of-plane. Micro transmission coverts out-of-plane rotation into in-plane reciprocating motion Micro transmission converts in-plane reciprocating motion into in-plane rotation of micro shaft and micro tool The micro transmission comprises a gear attached to a powered device such as TRA , a gear driven by gear of TRA , a pin attached to gear that drives slider mechanism Gear is composed of slider and arm which are shown in FIG.

The rotating gear of the micro transmission converts out-of-plane rotational motion into in-plane reciprocating motion of the slider mechanism In this embodiment, a first block slides back and forth as gear rotates. Slider mechanism, or block, also slides in reciprocating motion.

About This Item

Arm is attached to blocks and The difference in distance between the points where the arm attaches to the blocks and determines the output magnitude of the reciprocating motion of the micro transmission Referring back to FIG. In operation, during reciprocating motion of the slider mechanism in the shuttle guide , the wedges and engage and turn the pins and ninety 90 degrees and then another ninety 90 degrees in a two-sequence one hundred eighty degrees cycle.

Two such cycles provide a complete three hundred sixty degrees rotation of shaft and tool The micro transmission may be otherwise suitably constructed. In this embodiment, the micro machine 2 is an integrated on-chip, or single substrate, system such as the micro blender or the micro vehicle The micro machine 2 may be otherwise suitably manufactured. As described above, the micro machine 2 may be fabricated using suitable processes and materials.

Surface micromachining comprises fabrication of structures using thin films and patterning via photolithography.

Surface micro machining may fabricate structures through alternate deposition and patterning of sacrificial and structural materials. Proceeding to step , parts, or structures, of the fabricated micro machine 2 are released. In one embodiment, sacrificial material is removed to release moving parts that were supported or held immobile by the sacrificial material. The moving parts may be, for example, flexible or cantilever style arms, shafts, bearings, hubs, wheels, disks, gears, or other structures.


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At step , post assembly methods construct of out-of-plane features using parts patterned in-plane and released. Precise positioning in 3-D coordinates for such out-of-plane features may be provided by the post assembly methods. Post assembly uses on-chip actuation, such as MEMS actuators, to rotate or otherwise move structures. In one embodiment, structures patterned in-plane are rotated ninety 90 degrees into an out-of-plane orientation.

The post assembly methods may also receive and rotate a separately constructed device from out-of-plane to in-plane or otherwise. The post assembly methods provide development and construction of new kinds of micro-machinery e. As described above in connection with FIGS. The method may be use for other suitable post fabrication assembly and processes. For example, the cross-system may be used during operation of the micro machine 2 to rotate or otherwise move an element from or to a certain position or orientation in response to an input or event.

As another example, during start-up or wake-up of the micro machine 2 , one or more power, communication or other elements may be rotated or otherwise moved with the cross-system to a start-up or operational position and back to a rest position with the cross-system after processing is complete or the micro machine 2 is powered down.

As cylinder is rotated, so is any connected structure For post assembly, a locking mechanism such as described above may be used after rotation and deployment. For operational uses, the locking mechanism may be omitted or may include a selectively releasable lock.

For example, a double thermal actuator assembly such as thermal actuator illustrated in FIG. The tweezers-system may be use for other suitable post fabrication assembly and processes.

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For example, the tweezers-system may be used during operation of the micro machine 2 to rotate or otherwise move an element from or to a certain position or orientation in response to an input or event. As another example, during start-up or wake-up of the micro machine 2 , one or more power, communication or other elements may be rotated or otherwise moved with the tweezers-system to a start-up or operational position and back to a rest position after processing is complete or the micro machine 2 is powered down.

Movement back may be done by the use of springs and jacking system such as the types described in connection with FIG.


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  • As the two prongs and of the tweezers are pulled in the direction of the shown force, the prongs and are squeezed through a narrow gap between fixed objects As the prongs and are squeezed together, prong places a force on the P 4 layer of the micro-wheel and prong places a force on the P 2 layer of the micro-wheel, creating a moment on the micro-size wheel which rotates ninety 90 degrees as the tweezers are pulled through the narrow gap The bearing system may be used for post assembly bearing construction.

    The method may be use for or with other suitable on-chip actuated, post assembly fabrication assembly and processes. The shaft and alignment elements may be patterned in the polysilicon P 3 layer. After release of parts, on-chip actuated post assembly rotates the two structures and with bearing halves ninety 90 degrees so that the two bearing halves patterned in-plane end up in an out-of-plane orientation and so that the two structures and and included halves encircle the shaft and alignment elements which have been patterned in the polysilicon P 3 layer.

    For this, the P 4 structure may be rotated downward ninety 90 degrees and the P 2 structure may be rotated upward ninety 90 degrees, resulting in the out-of-plane orientation with both bearing halves fitting well together as depicted in FIG. In other embodiments, the bearing halves may be or otherwise configured and rotated in the opposite directions with the P 4 half rotated upward and the P 2 half rotated downward.

    In addition, different types of structures may be fabricated on structures and and assembled or used in operation by rotation of the structures using the cross-system , tweezers-system or other positioning system.

    mems fabrication process: Topics by sjewmisba.tk

    The jacking system may be omitted and post assembly performed with only the thermal actuators or with thermal actuators in connection with couplers or multipliers. In addition, the jacking system may be used operationally as part of the micro machine 2. For example, the jacking system may be extended in response to an input or event to perform a function or to extend or retract a device to perform a function. Any post fabrication post assembly system operable to move or rotate a structure may be used, such as the cross-system or tweezers-system. The plunger is mechanically coupled to the cross-system , tweezers-system , or other post assembly or operational deployment system The plunger may include one or more single, double or multiple sided racks of teeth , or notches, for engagement by the cranking system and the latching system In a particular embodiment, a first rack of teeth a may be engaged by the cranking system A second rack of teeth b may be engaged by the latching system The cranking system is anchored to thermal actuators The cranking system is coupled to the plunger by one or more cranking arms rotating about pivots The cranking arms each include one or more teeth configured to engage teeth racks a.

    The cranking arms may be biased toward the plunger by tension springs In one embodiment, the stiffness of the tension springs may be set based on the length of the tension spring with the stiffness lessening as the length increases. In one embodiment, the cranking system may include slight protrusions to control alignment and tolerance between the cranking system and the plunger The tolerance, in a specific embodiment, may be fifty 50 nanometers.

    Also, as above, dimples may be used in to reduce friction as the plunger and cranking system move and they may be used, for example, to limit its vertical movement to several hundred nanometers tolerance. The latching system is anchored to the substrate The latching system is coupled to the plunger by one or more latching arms rotating about pivots The latching arms each include one or more teeth configured to engage teeth racks b. The latching arms may be biased toward the plunger by tension springs The stiffness of the tension springs may be set based on the length of the tension spring with the stiffness lessening as the length increases.

    In one embodiment, tension springs and may have the same or substantially the same stiffness to provide balance between the cranking and latching elements. In this embodiment, pivots and may comprise a dimple extending below P 3 , for example, 1.

    A clearance of one micron, for example, may be provided between each pivot or and the surrounding socket In operation, when the thermal actuators actuate, the cranking arms push the plunger outward from deployment system where the plunger is prevented from reverse motion by the latching arms As the thermal actuators and cranking system return to their rest positions, the latching arms continue to hold the plunger in place.

    As the thermal actuators continue to be cycled, the cranking arms incrementally push the plunger outward one or more teeth at a time on each power stroke, where the plunger is incrementally held by the latching arms In this way, the elements can be, for example, incrementally moved out-of-plane or on-chip actuated post assembly structures incrementally moved clear of or into operational engagement with operational elements.

    Although this disclosure has been described in terms of certain embodiments and generally associated methods, alterations and permutations of these embodiments and methods will be apparent to those skilled in the art. For example, any suitable element, including all those specifically described above, may be rotated, slid, pushed, pulled, raised, lowered, or otherwise moved from in-plane to out-of-plane, from out-of-plane to in-plane, from in-plane to otherwise in-plane, from out-of-plane to otherwise out-of-plane, from any first orientation to any second orientation.

    Such movement may move elements into or out of physical, electrical, or operational engagement or communication with other elements. In addition, movement may be operational movement in addition to or in place of deployment movement. Accordingly, the above description of example embodiments does not define or constrain this disclosure.

    US20130005955A1 - Micro Rotary Machine and Methods for Using Same - Google Patents

    Other changes, substitutions, and alterations are also possible without departing from the spirit and scope of this disclosure. A micro rotary machine, comprising: a micro actuator;. The micro rotary machine of claim 1 , the micro shaft in or less than the micrometer domain. The micro rotary machine of claim 1 , the micro shaft, micro actuator and micro tool fabricated on a substrate. The micro rotary machine of claim 1 , the micro tool comprising one or more blades. The micro rotary machine of claim 1 , further comprising one or more micro bearing supporting rotation of the micro shaft.

    The micro rotary machine of claim 1 , further comprising a micro fludic channel transporting material to the tool for blending. The micro rotary machine of claim 1 , further comprising a micro transmission coupled between the micro actuator and the micro shaft, the micro transmission operable to rotate the micro shaft in response to motion of the micro actuator. The micro rotary machine of claim 1 , the micro actuator comprising one or more thermal actuators.

    The rotary machine of claim 1 , micro tool configured and operable to shave-off material at the micron level. A micro blender, comprising: a micro actuator;. The micro blender of claim 10 , the micro actuator comprising double thermal actuators in a tandem configuration. A method for blending material at or below the micron level, comprising: rotating in-plane a micro shaft to rotate a micro tool;.

    The method of claim 12 , further comprising cutting and mixing at the micron level or below the material using the micro tool. The method of claim 12 , further comprising lysing cells using the micro tool. The method of claim 12 , further comprising removing sub cellular elements from cells using the micro tool.

    Multi-Wafer Rotating MEMS Machines: Turbines, Generators, and Engines (MEMS Reference Shelf) Multi-Wafer Rotating MEMS Machines: Turbines, Generators, and Engines (MEMS Reference Shelf)
    Multi-Wafer Rotating MEMS Machines: Turbines, Generators, and Engines (MEMS Reference Shelf) Multi-Wafer Rotating MEMS Machines: Turbines, Generators, and Engines (MEMS Reference Shelf)
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    Multi-Wafer Rotating MEMS Machines: Turbines, Generators, and Engines (MEMS Reference Shelf) Multi-Wafer Rotating MEMS Machines: Turbines, Generators, and Engines (MEMS Reference Shelf)
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    Multi-Wafer Rotating MEMS Machines: Turbines, Generators, and Engines (MEMS Reference Shelf) Multi-Wafer Rotating MEMS Machines: Turbines, Generators, and Engines (MEMS Reference Shelf)

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